CrawlingCrawling is your baby's first method of getting around efficiently on his own. In the traditional crawl, he'll start by learning to balance on his hands and knees. Then he'll figure out how to move forward and backward by pushing off with his knees. At the same time, he'll be strengthening the muscles that will soon enable him to walk.
When it developsMost babies learn to crawl between the ages of 7and 10 months. Your baby may opt for another method of locomotion around this time, though – like bottom shuffling (scooting around on her bottom, using a hand behind and a foot in front to propel herself), slithering on her stomach, or rolling across the room.
Don't worry about her style; it's getting mobile that's important, no matter how your baby does it. Some babies skip crawling altogether and move directly to pulling up, standing, cruising (furniture walking), and walking.
Since the "Back to Sleep" campaign was initiated in 1994, many babies seem to be crawling later or skipping it completely. (The campaign aims to reduce the risk of SIDS by encouraging parents to put babies to sleep on their back.)
How it developsYour baby will likely start crawling soon after he's able to sit well without support (probably by the time he's 8 months old). After this point, he can hold his head up to look around, and his arm, leg, and back muscles are strong enough to keep him from falling on the floor when he gets up on his hands and knees.
Over a couple of months, your baby will gradually learn to move confidently from a sitting position to being on all fours, and he'll soon realize he can rock back and forth when his limbs are straight and his trunk is parallel to the floor.
Somewhere around 9 or 10 months, he'll figure out that pushing off with his knees gives him just the boost he needs to go mobile. As he gains proficiency, he'll learn to go from a crawling position back into a sitting position.
He'll also master the advanced technique that pediatrician William Sears calls "cross-crawling" – moving one arm and the opposite leg together when he moves forward, rather than using an arm and a leg from the same side. After that, practice makes perfect. Look for him to be a really competent crawler by the time he's a year old.
What's nextAfter your baby has mastered crawling, the only thing between her and complete mobility is learning to walk. To that end, she'll soon begin pulling herself up on everything she can reach, whether it's the coffee table or Grandma's leg. Once she gets the feel of balancing on her legs, she'll be ready to stand on her own and cruise while holding on to furniture. Then it's just a matter of time until she's walking, running, jumping, and leaping.
Your roleFrom the start, long before your baby's ready to crawl, give him plenty of tummy time. Placing your baby on his tummy and playing with him for several minutes a few times a day while he's awake and alert will help to develop muscles that he needs to crawl. Tummy time can also prevent a flat spot from developing on his head, which sometimes happens when infants spend a lot of time on their backs.
The best way to encourage crawling – as with reaching and grabbing – is to place toys and other desirable objects (even yourself) just beyond your baby's reach. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) also suggests using pillows, boxes, and sofa cushions to create obstacle courses for him to negotiate. This will help improve his confidence, speed, and agility. Just don't leave him alone – if he gets stuck under a pillow or box, he'll be frightened and may be in danger of smothering.
A crawling baby can get into a lot of mischief. Make sure your house is childproofed, with a special emphasis on stairway gates. Your baby will be drawn to stairs, but they can be dangerous, so keep them off-limits until he's really mastered walking (usually by about 18 months). Even then, supervise him closely. For now, suggests the AAP, create a couple of practice steps with foam blocks or sturdy cardboard boxes covered in fabric.
You don't have to invest in shoes just yet. Your baby won't need to wear footwear regularly until he's mastered walking.